Stuttering

Do you get stuck on a sound or find yourself frequently repeating syllables or words?

Are these noticeable to others and affect everyday talking at work, presentations or in social settings? These interruptions are called dysfluencies and may cause frustration or affect one’s self confidence.

The good news is, stuttering is treatable. We have successfully helped teens and adults with mild to severe stuttering conditions. Drop us an enquiry or read on to find out more!

What is Stuttering?

Stuttering is a speech disorder where the smooth flow of speech is disrupted. This dysfluency may interfere with the ability to be clearly understood. It is estimated that in Singapore, more than 1 per cent of the population stammers.

Some types of stutters include:

Onset Of Stuttering

The onset of stuttering typically occurs in the early years of life, between 2 to 5 years old or as soon as a child starts putting words together into short sentences. Sometimes, stuttering may be ‘acquired’ in late childhood or early adulthood. “Acquired” stuttering may occur due to psychogenic reasons or neurological trauma such as a head injury or stroke.

Stuttering Treatment

Prolonged or Smooth Speech Techniques have been shown to have very favourable outcomes.

Clients are taught specific strategies to improve their fluency and control the stutter. Treatment is conducted on an individual basis and tailored to suit the client’s needs. This may include reading, presentations, speaking engagements, job interviews or other social situations. This is important, especially as first impressions count.

Cluttering

What is Cluttering?

Cluttering is a fluency disorder that is characterized by an irregular or rapid speech rate which results in a breakdown in speech clarity. Prosody (speech rhythm) and articulation may also be affected. For instance, an individual may display articulation difficulties, such as saying “buttercup” as “tuttertup”, or omit word endings.

Other Symptoms Of Cluttering Include:

Cluttering can co-occur with other disorders including stuttering, speech sound disorders and language disorders.

Differences between Stuttering and Cluttering

Symptom Stuttering Cluttering
What gets stuck Word, sound, syllable Message
Know what want to say?   Yes   No (or less clear; know but theyget derailed in mazes)  
Awareness   Typically yes   Yes and No  
Rate differences   Can be a secondary strategy (i.e. person who stutters may speak quickly to avoid stuttering), but is not central to stuttering itself   Yes; mandatory for a diagnosis of cluttering (note that rate has to be rapid OR irregular, but does not have to be both)  
Dysfluences Mostly stuttering-like disfluencies (SLDs), such as repetitions, prolonga­tions, blocks   Mostly non- stuttering- like disfluencies (NSLDs), such as interjections / filler words, phrases repetitions, revisions  
Examples of dysfluencies:   Repetitions of sounds of syllables: y-y-you, wa-wa-watermelon Prolongations: sssso; thiiiis Blocks: sound gets stuck and person has difficulty moving forward to nextsound: p---eople Interjections/ filler words: um, uh Phrase repetitions: I love, I love NSA. Revisions: I would like ice cream, no, please make that a shake
Articulation difficulties (i.e. difficulties pronouncing sounds in words) Not in pure stuttering (i.e. stuttering without any additional communication disorders)

Collapsing or deletion of syllables (e.g. escalator as "eslator").

Prosody (i.e. the rhythm and melody of one’s speech) Typically normal

Irregular speech rate with jerky speaking patterns - incorrect use of pauses, syllable stress and volume.

How it sounds Repetitions, prolongations, blocks Rushes of speech; lots of restarts.
Affective and cognitive components   Can be   Negative reactions and communication avoidance.
Pragmatics (i.e. social aspects of language) Typically okay A secondary consequence to decreased communication effectiveness.  

Reference: National Stuttering Association, 2010

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